Aug 062017

I’ve been writing my bum off the last few weeks working on a survey article of the Duelund DCA line of tinned-copper cables for Positive Feedback.

I’ll be submitting the article to Positive Feedback Editors David and Dave for their consideration sometime today, so you should expect to see it published before too long.

Until then, I thought you’d enjoy a ‘sneak preview’!


In very speedy fashion Positive Feedback Editor Dave Clark just posted the article on Positive Feedback here!


An Adventure in the Art of Tone with the Duelund Coherent Audio DCA Series of Tinned-Copper Cables, Part 1

By Jeff Day

Back in Issue 88 of Positive Feedback I wrote about the Duelund Coherent Audio DCA16GA tinned-copper audio cable that I’ve been using for building interconnects, loudspeaker cables, and for the internal wiring of my Tannoy Westminster Royal SE loudspeakers’ external Duelund CAST external crossovers.

That was a scant seven months ago, and now due to popular demand from audio enthusiasts around the world the Duelund Coherent Audio DCA line of tinned-copper cables has multiplied to include DCA12GA, DCA16GA, DCA20GA, and DCA26GA!

Before I tell you all the details of the Duelund DCA line of cables and my experiences with them, let me back up a little for those of you who are new to the developing story of the nouveau-vintage tinned-copper cable/wire revolution that has been sweeping the audio world over the last few years, and fill you in on what I think is a rather important history behind tinned-copper cables.

Where did tinned-copper cables come from?

Back in 1950’s America tinned-copper cables were routinely used in industrial applications, because electroplating copper conductors with tin prevented corrosion and improved their strippability, which made for an altogether more durable & reliable cable for industrial use.

Corrosion was an issue back in the 1950’s because the common insulators of the day released sulfur peroxide as they decayed over time, which would then react with the copper conductors to form copper sulfide, which degraded the cables’ performance and durability, and eventually necessitated replacing them.

However, with tinned-copper wire, the sulfur peroxide released from the insulators couldn’t degrade the copper by forming copper sulfide, thus protecting the performance characteristics and the durability of the cables, and giving them a much longer service life.

Another factor was that for the shielded cables of the 1950’s, the composition of the shielding made it difficult to strip away from bare copper conductors, so tinned-copper conductors were used, as they were easier to field-strip in preparation for use, making life easier for cable installation into industrial applications or commercial products.

So, the origin of tinned-copper cables was related to the purely practical reasons of preventing corrosion and easing strippability, making the wire more durable, reliable, and easy to handle in industrial and commercial applications.

The Use of Tinned-Copper Conductors in Vintage Electric Guitars and Audio

Of particular interest to musicians and audio enthusiasts will be the use of tinned-copper conductors in vintage electric guitars and their amplifiers, and in vintage audio equipment.

Certain vintage electric guitar voices are forever etched into our minds from the music of Chuck Berry (Gibson ES 350), Eric Clapton (‘Blackie’ Stratocaster), Keith Richards (‘Micawber’ Telecaster), and Neil Young (‘Old Black’ Gibson Les Paul), for a few examples.

The electric guitar guys like to use the term ‘vintage tone’ to describe the tonal properties of certain vintage electric guitars and their amplifiers, like the 1957 Gibson ES 350 or Les Paul, the 1954 Fender Stratocaster, the 1950 Fender Telecaster, along with the Fender Deluxe Reverb (think Roy Buchanan) or the Marshall JTM 45 Combo (think Clapton), as a few examples.

Where did the tone go?

As you would expect, electric guitar musicians have noticed the difference in the tonal qualities and musicality of the vintage vs. contemporary electric guitars and their amplifiers, and as far as quite a few electric guitar musicians were concerned, those differences in tone & musicality were not for the better.

In an effort to duplicate those now rare & expensive vintage electric guitars’ tone, the electric guitar guys examined vintage electric guitars and their amplifiers and found that there were certain internal components (as well as the vacuum tube amplification, of course) that contributed to the ‘vintage tone’ of those great electric guitars and their amplifiers, like tinned-copper wire, or certain vintage capacitors like Black Beauties or Bumblebees, or Allen Bradley carbon composition resistors, for example.

Tinned-copper cables & wires faded from the electric guitar and audio scenes for the same reason they did from industrial applications. It simply costs a lot more money to use them in production products, so in an effort to keep costs down and make more money, tinned-copper got phased out over time as new insulators were developed that didn’t corrode bare copper conductors, and new shielding materials were developed that made strippability over bare copper conductors a relative breeze.

Those new approaches for insulators & shielding meant that the tinned-copper conductors that were so much more expensive to manufacture faded from the scene, and the forces at penny-pinching companies buried them in the sands of time, largely erasing them from people’s memories, until the electric guitar musicians figured out where the tone had gone.

Back to the tone!

After the electric guitar musician community figured out why the tone & musicality of the vintage gear was superior to the modern gear, a cottage industry arose offering re-wiring kits with tinned-copper pushback wire, exotic vintage capacitors like Black Beauties or Bumblebees, vintage-style pots, vintage-style pickups, and other vintage-style components that helped to restore the lost tone & musicality to contemporary electric guitars and their amplifiers.

This interest in ‘vintage tone’ was not lost upon the electric guitar industry, which responded by producing special edition guitars that more closely aligned in tone & musicality to their vintage ancestors.

In a Parallel Audio Universe

In a parallel audio universe, Mr. Shirokazu Yazaki, who has enjoyed being an audio hobbyist all his life, and a successful professional audio designer in Japan for over 40 years, Yazaki-san made a discovery in his vintage home audio system that when using vintage Western Electric WE16GA cable as speaker cables, and the old studio standard Belden 8402 microphone cables as interconnects, that his hifi had a much more ‘real sound’ tonally and musically.

When I first met Yazaki-san during the review of the SPEC RSA-M3 EX Real Sound Amplifier for Positive Feedback (Issue 78), he shared with me his fondness for the vintage Western Electric WE16GA for speaker cables, and the Belden 8402 microphone cable as interconnects, and kindly sent me a bit of both so I could give them a listen for myself.

I tried the Western Electric WE16GA as speaker cables with my Tannoy Westminster Royal SE loudspeakers, and the Belden 8402 as interconnects with my vintage McIntosh vacuum tube electronics, and I was immediately impressed by their performance, and I bought stocks of both to use in my upcoming audio adventures I had planned.

As I began to write about my experiences with the WE16GA and the Belden 8402 at my blog, Jeff’s Place, word quickly got out about their enchanting musical & sonic performance.

Over the course of time, in all four of my home hifi systems, I replaced all of my interconnects with the Belden 8402 microphone cable interconnects, I replaced my speaker cables with vintage WE16GA, and I even completely rewired my Westminster’s internally with vintage WE16GA, and did the same for their spectacular Duelund CAST external crossovers.

I was hooked on their unique combination of musical & sonic performance, and Yazaki-san’s kindly act towards me turned out to be a “shot heard around the world” in enthusiast audio, and set in motion powerful musical forces by encouraging the use of skinny vintage Western Electric WE16GA cable as speaker cables, and Belden 8402 microphone cable as interconnects.

If you guessed that the Western Electric WE16GA cable and Belden 8402 cable share tinned-copper conductors as a common element, you’re exactly right.

These tinned-copper cables quickly became very popular with thousands of audio enthusiasts around the world because of what they did for the music in a home hi-fi system, that is, making it sound much more like ‘real’ live music in terms of tone, dynamics, presence, timbre, beat, rhythm, tempo, and most importantly, they evoked a strong emotional response to the artists’ music.

These tinned-copper cables were also very satisfying in the way they portrayed the non-musical artifacts of the recording process, like imaging, the soundstage, the soundspace, resolution, and transparency, of a recording, which gave the music a reach out and touch it sort of realism that was very vivid, and viscerally enthralling.

In fact, these tinned-copper cables changed the way I thought about the importance of the reproduction of non-musical artifacts from the recording process, and how they could enhance the enjoyment of the recorded music listening experience.

As a bonus, these tinned-copper cables were also inexpensive, and many listeners were able to wire up their entire system with them for a few hundred dollars.

While doing some hot-rod modifications to my vintage McIntosh MC30 monaural vacuum tube amplifiers, I realized that my vintage McIntosh gear was wired internally with tinned-copper wire, and thus found out that just like with those vintage electric guitars and their amplifiers, that vintage audio electronics ‘vintage tone’ was due in part to being wired with tinned-copper wire.

The exceptional tone and musicality of tinned-copper wire/cables had now been rediscovered in both the world of electric guitars and in enthusiast audio.

People were taking notice of tinned-copper cable/wire, and word was spreading fast.

Some of that notice wasn’t so good, as some sellers on eBay started capitalizing on the wave of WE16GA popularity by selling fake WE16GA as the supply of real WE16GA began to go extinct.

I warned my fellow audio enthusiasts about the fake WE16GA situation, and at the same time I was also starting to worry about the dwindling stocks of vintage WE16GA, as my own stash of vintage Western Electric WE16GA was starting to run low, and I still had a lot of ideas for audio adventures that I wanted to try using it for.

Duelund Coherent Audio DCA16GA

Sometimes a bit of serendipity is at play in audio, as it is in life, and it certainly was in this case, as Frederik Carøe at Duelund Coherent Audio in Denmark had been observing the wave of passion that had been generated by the now nearly extinct Western Electric WE16GA.

Frederik came up with the idea that he should build a purist version of the highly desired Western Electric WE16GA cable, with an identical number & gauge of tinned-copper conductors (26 strands of 0.25mm diameter tinned-copper wires).

In the tradition of Steen Duelund’s philosophy that natural materials produce more natural tone, Frederik wanted to clothe the DCA16GA’s conductors in a baked oil-impregnated cotton dielectric, instead of the vintage Western Electric’s dielectric of plastic inner-sleeve and red & black fabric outer covering.

Frederik asked me what I thought of the idea, and of course I was very excited about it, and I thought it would open up a whole new era of audio adventures around the world for audio enthusiasts!

When the Duelund DCA16GA finally arrived on my doorstep, I began to experiment with it in my hifi system, and compare it to the vintage Western Electric WE16GA I had been happily using.

As you know if you read my Positive Feedback article in Issue 88, I was really impressed with the new Duelund DCA16GA, and I thought it bettered the vintage Western Electric in every way.

Not only that, but the Duelund DCA16GA could be bought from HiFi Collective in the UK Parts ConneXion for $9.99 USD/meter ($3.33/foot), which is actually less expensive than what I paid per meter for a spool of Western Electric WE16GA.

That’s a bargain price for what is essentially a custom, hand-assembled audio cable, that betters the legendary vintage Western Electric WE16GA in every way, and I applaud Frederik for making the superb Duelund DCA16GA available to audio enthusiasts for such an affordable price.

The fact that you could build a world-class pair of 2-meter speaker cables (bare wire terminations sound best) for well under a $100 USD, was a welcome surprise to audio enthusiasts around the world, and I got daily emails from readers who vastly preferred the inexpensive DCA16GA to their ultra-expensive cables, then sold their expensive speaker cables, and never looked back.

The fact that one could easily build an inexpensive set of world-class interconnects with the Duelund DCA16GA also blew audio enthusiasts away, as a one-meter pair of DCA16GA interconnects terminated with the venerable Switchcraft 3502AAU RCA ($3.94 each at Mouser) could be built for less than $60 USD (above).

When audio enthusiasts began selling their ‘high-end’ speaker cables and interconnects that sold for many thousands of dollars, in favor of Duelund DCA16GA speaker cables and interconnects that sold for less than a $100 USD each, word quickly began to spread.

As you might surmise, the Duelund DCA16GA cable has become very popular with audio enthusiasts, with the first production run selling out only six days after it was released. The second production run sold out similarly quickly, but now after getting a few more production runs under their Duelund belt, I understand that availability of DCA16GA has stabilized, and Frederik is able to keep up with the demand without the long waits that were common earlier.

Tinned-copper is about the tone!

The most frequent question I get asked about tinned-copper audio cables is what they sound like compared to regular copper or silver cables.

If you ask a violinist why a Stradivarius violin sounds better than most other violins, they’ll say simply, “They have better tone.”

If you ask one of the electric guitar guys what tinned-copper cable sounds like in their guitars compared to copper or silver cables, they’ll say simply, “Tinned-copper cables have better tone.”

When a musician says one instrument has better ‘tone’ than another instrument, what they’re really saying is that the instrument is capable of greater musical expression when played by a talented musician.

So, when the electric guitar guys say their guitar has better tone when wired with tinned-copper, they are saying that it is capable of greater musical expression when they play it.

What do tinned-copper cables sound like in audio applications?

In audio, when I say that I think tinned-copper cables have better ‘tone’ in my system than copper or silver cables, I am saying that when I’m playing music over my hifi system it sounds more expressive and ‘real’ when I have it wired up with tinned-copper cables.

Just saying that tinned-copper cables ‘have better tone’ and provide for a more expressive and ‘real’ sound doesn’t really tell the whole story for audio.

When musicians talk about ‘tone’ in terms of an instrument they’re usually referring to its general character or quality of the sound, and the way it complements and elevates a musician’s playing, so ‘tone’ tends to be a bit of a catch-all term describing the musicality of an instrument in response to a talented musician playing it, but in audio it is a little bit different.

In general audio terms, I might say the ‘tone’ voicing of my system sounds more information rich, natural, and colorful, with tinned-copper cables.

In more specific audio ‘tone’ terms, I would say that with tinned-copper cables the timbre of instruments sounds much more accurate and ‘real’ to me, with lots of meaningful natural nuance resolved.

Tinned-copper cables also offer a rather remarkable resolution of tone color (those chordal variations resulting from adding additional pitches to three tone triads that give different styles of music their ‘sound’ and emotional feel), which I think jazz enthusiasts (like myself) should take particular note of, as jazz employs the extensive use of complex and exotic tone colors.

Wait until you hear how utterly real and magical trumpets, upright bass, guitars, and percussion, sound and feel when listening to jazz, I was totally mesmerized with what I was hearing from the tinned-copper cables.

Tinned-copper cables are transparent and resolving, much like silver cables, but with more natural timbral textures, a greater sense of the recorded space, and there is an information rich nuance to the presentation of the music both harmonically and dynamically that sounds very realistic and satisfying.

This tinned-copper transparency & natural sounding resolution works wonders with harmonies too, and I’m constantly surprised by the important harmonies emerging from the music that went largely unnoticed with other even extremely well-regarded copper or silver cables.

My experience has been that tinned-copper cables more closely approach the sound, feel, and emotional impact of live music, in terms of timbre, melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, tempo, tone color, beat, and the ability to play naturally at live-like volume levels, than do other copper or silver cables in my experience, which has made tinned-copper cables tremendously more exciting, emotionally engaging, and ultimately more satisfying to listen to music with, than the other cables I have used.

Which tinned-copper cable is best for audio?

The second most frequent question I get asked is, “Which tinned-copper cable sounds best?”


Ok, that’s it for now. I’ll let you know when the article for Positive Feedback goes live!

As always, thanks for stopping by, and may the tone be with you!


 Posted by at 11:17 am

  17 Responses to “Sneak Preview of my upcoming article for Positive Feedback: An Adventure in the Art of Tone with the Duelund Coherent Audio DCA Series of Tinned-Copper Cables, Part 1 – Update – now live at PF!”

  1. Jeff,

    Great article. I really been waiting for this one. I can relate to the guitar comparisons as i’m into that probably more than hifi. I hope to try the DCA12GA some day. Thanks for the mention I wasn’t expecting that. This place has been really helpful you, and all involved every member. Thanks,


    • Hi Bill,

      Thank you so much, I really appreciate it!

      Your mention was well deserved, as your sharing about your voltage conditioning results with me turned out to be a very important addition to the article, and it is a powerful technique for dialing in tone that I wanted more people to know about.

      I really value hearing these sorts of discoveries and observations, it makes a huge contribution to the collective knowledge!

      Thanks again, Bill, and may the tone be with you!

      Kind regards,


  2. Thanks for sharing your experience with the WE and Duelund wire with us! I’ve been holding out upgrading my speaker wire for quite some time now mainly due to the fact that I was afraid of the expense of 27 (!) meters of wire for my front speakers. You see, my syetem is in the back of my room and speakers obviously in the front with the wire fished through the walls. I wanted to run the wire under the carpet to save length and expense but my wife said no dice to that. So I was left replacing my average at best Audioquest wire with 27 meters of, well, something expensive. My system is mainly rigged with Nordost and the thought of running 27 meters of Nordost gives me the chills. We’re talkin at least $10k and that’s not even the good stuff! So you can imagine how thrilled I was to see your article about the copper tinned “classic” WE wire and the new Duelund wire. Now I can rewire my system for a fraction of the cost of the Nordost speaker wire (or any other decent speaker wire, for that matter)! I’ll let you know my impressions. Thanks again, Jeff!

    • Hi Adam,

      Yikes, that’s a lot of wire!

      I’ll be looking forward to hearing about your results!

      Kind regards,


      • As it turns out, I don’t think I’ll be able to fish the wire through the walls. At least not without huge effort. So I went ahead and ran the wire direct to the speakers under the carpet and go away with about half of the length, which is probably better anyway. And, oh my god, what a difference!! I can’t believe that I have been living with the AQ speaker wife choking my system for so long! I’m now hearing so much more detail, it’s crazy. The whole spectrum is clearer. Cymbals more crisp and realistic. Bass more distinct. Wonderful vocals and instrument tone. It is truly amazing. I’ve done basically no break in at all and the Duelund DCA 16GA is already miles ahead of my old speaker wire. I can’t wait for how they’ll sound after they open up!! Thanks so much Jeff. This is really a gift! 🙂

        • Hi Adam,

          That’s great news, and I’m glad to hear you are enjoying the DCA16GA, it’s pretty wonderful as speaker cables.

          Have fun!

          Kind regards,


          • So Jeff, I was thinking about re-wiring my headshell and tonearm with 26GA Duelund DCA wire. My tonearm and headshell basically run wire straight through the arm tube without connects at the base of the headshell with a wire out the back or the arm to mini XLR connector which connects to a junction box on the back of the TT. Would you shield the wire between the tonearm output and the mini XLR connector? I can’t imagine shielding in the arm tube would be wise since that would add so much weight, but then again, it could be offset (but you would increase the effective mass of the arm). I’m guessing the outer diameter of the 26GA wire is small enough to not cause problems. Thanks again!

          • Hi Adam,

            DCA26GA headshell leads have become my new standard. I’m still experimenting a bit with the clips. So far I’ve only used the Cardas clips, but I bought some vintage clips that are tinned that look interesting. I’m not sure if they are tinned-copper, or something else. I’ve also got some Audiosilente clips on the way that I’m looking forward to trying.

            I’ve been thinking a tonearm rewire with the Duelund DCA26GA could be a really nice way to go. The wire that is inside the arm is shielded by the armtube itself, so no worries there.

            I think I would try leaving the part of cable that comes out of the tonearm unshielded first to see if it works. If it hums, then add the shielding in.

            Let me know about your results, I’m really interested in your outcome!

            Kind regards,


          • I’ve ordered the parts and am anxious to try it out. I’m not a soldering expert, but I think I can make it work. From what I understand, braiding the wires might give the best result rather than loose or twisted pair. What do you think? I hope the 26GA wire will make it through the output on the arm tube! I guess I could always drill it out, if need be. I’ll let you know how it goes. I see you’re a Bill Evans fan so I could maybe do a rip of the MoFi Ultradisc and share it with you on Dropbox to see what you think of the tone. What do you think?

          • Hi Adam,

            My recommendation would be to not braid or twist the wires. I’ve tried braiding and twisting wires, but I always come back to just running them straight and loose as the most musical sounding approach. Also, I’m not sure that if you braid them that they’ll fit in the armtube, but you could try.

            Oh man, thanks for the offer on Bill Evans, but I’m not a very digital sort of guy, so it’d be wasted on me.

            Keep me posted on your adventure!

            Kind regards,


  3. Dear Jeff, till now I miss explanations about tinned copper power cords. Have you already experiences in this issue ?

    • Hi Simone,

      You really haven’t missed any discussions about tinned-copper power cords.

      The Duelund DCA tinned-copper line of signal cables that works so well for interconnects, speaker cables, and the like, isn’t designed for use as power cords, and for safety reasons you shouldn’t use it for that.

      I have heard a rumor that Frederik is developing a line of DCA cables suitable for making power cords, but Frederik has not confirmed that yet.

      Kind regards,


  4. Jeff I am curious if you or anyone at Duelund considered spacing the shield further from the signal wire as opposed to the shield which is offered which appears to leave no spacing from the signal wires? It had previously been my understanding that if a shield is necessary that it should be spaced away from the signal wires as much as possible. My interest is that I may have to add a shield to my twisted pair of 20 awg interconnects because of environmental interference and my interconnects are about 16 feet long. Expecting that sliding the shield over the twisted pair will be quite a challenge. Joe Fagan

    • Hi Joe,

      I’m not sure if I fully understand your question.

      The Duelund doesn’t contain any shielding, just a baked oil-soaked cotton dielectric, which is part of the reason it sounds so musical.

      When needing shielding, like with the phono IC’s for my SUT, I build in the shielding, which is then spaced quite a ways from signal cable.

      However, for my shielding I don’t twist the DCA20GA, so the shielding slides on easily. If the twisted pair is a tight fit, going up a size or two in shielding size should solve the issue.

      Also, as an aside, I like to connect shielding only on the source end, as I think it sounds better that way when I do that.

      Kind regards,


  5. Hi Jeff– First want to thank you for all the great tips you provide the community here. I think you and I have very similar listening biases. I recently built a 2 pairs of Belden interconnects per your earlier findings (thought I would do that before trying the Duelund in interconnects) and I think they sound great. Then tried some WE 16ga and am enjoying that as well, although I think they give much in the midrange as well as taketh away something in the high and low end. So am about to go to upgrading to the Duelund wire. My system is much like your second system but I have Spendor S-100s in place of your Harbeths and McIntosh C2200/MC275 in place of your integrated. I have been through your postings on this. I do see where you say it sounds great and that between the 12ga and the 16ga there are trade-offs. But have you compared the 12ga to the 16ga on the Harbeth’s and prefer the 16ga. Elsewhere on the internet others say the 12ga is just all around better. So, am confused as to what to buy. As I trust your ears and biases over others and you have a similar system, can you shed some light? Thanks!

    • Hi Robert,

      Thanks for the kind words, appreciated!

      I think your assessment of the WE16GA is right on – mid-range magic and polite in the treble & bass is a pretty good way to characterize them.

      I love those Spendor S100 speakers, they have a nice tonal balance. I haven’t tried the DCA12GA on the Harbeth’s. After I tried the DCA16GA on the Harbeth’s I liked the result so much that I’ve left them alone.

      I summarize the properties of the Duelund DCA tinned-copper cables in the Positive Feedback review HERE.

      On my Westminster’s I’m using DCA20GA on the HF XO and DCA12GA on the LF XO and as speaker cables, DCA20GA as interconnects, and it is a very nice match. On my Altec A5’s (and Harbeth’s) I’m using DCA16GA as speaker cables and it is also a nice match to their musical traits.

      The DCA16GA has that classic tinned-copper balance of a vivid & colorful mid-range and artfully rendered timbral textures. In comparison, the DCA12GA is richer and smoother, and the DCA20GA is smoother and more transparent.

      They all have very desirable traits, and really the art of the matter is picking which cables to use to best match a given system balance and listening preferences, so I don’t think there is a single “best” combination.

      For the Spendor S100’s I think I’d start with the DCA16GA as speaker cables and give it a listen.

      Let me know how it works out.

      Kind regards,


  6. Jeff,

    Thanks so much for your thoughts. I did a very careful read of the Positive Feedback review you linked to. Let me say you did a great job of leading folks through a very subtle and nuanced subject. Will be ordering the 16GA as you suggest. And I certainly will let you know how it works out.

    All the best to you, Rob

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